Very deep convolutional network for large scale image recognition

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ery Deep Convolutional Networks for Large-Scale Image Recognition 10
L [2014] Very Deep Convolutional Networks for Large-Scale Image Recognition 10

Karen Simonyan ∗ & Andrew Zisserman + Visual Geometry Group, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford {karen,az}@robots.ox.ac.uk – Published as a conference paper at ICLR 2015 – image recognition

ABSTRACT

In this work we investigate the effect of the convolutional network depth on its accuracy in the large-scale image recognition setting. Our main contribution is a thorough evaluation of networks of increasing depth using an architecture with very small ( 3 × 3) convolution filters, which shows that a significant improvement on the prior-art configurations can be achieved by pushing the depth to 16–19 weight layers. These findings were the basis of our ImageNet Challenge 2014 submission, where our team secured the first and the second places in the localisation and classification tracks respectively. We also show that our representations generalise well to other datasets, where they achieve state-of-the-art results. We have made our two best-performing ConvNet models publicly available to facilitate further research on the use of deep visual representations in computer vision.

1 INTRODUCTION

Convolutional networks (ConvNets) have recently enjoyed a great success in large-scale image and video recognition (Krizhevsky et al., 2012; Zeiler & Fergus, 2013; Sermanet et al., 2014; Simonyan & Zisserman, 2014) which has become possible due to the large public image repositories, such as ImageNet (Deng et al., 2009), and high-performance computing systems, such as GPUs or large-scale distributed clusters (Dean et al., 2012).

In particular, an important role in the advance of deep visual recognition architectures has been played by the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC) (Russakovsky et al., 2014), which has served as a testbed for a few generations of large-scale image classification systems, from high-dimensional shallow feature encodings (Perronnin et al., 2010) (the winner of ILSVRC-2011) to deep ConvNets (Krizhevsky et al., 2012) (the winner of ILSVRC-2012).

With ConvNets becoming more of a commodity in the computer vision field, a number of attempts have been made to improve the original architecture of Krizhevsky et al. (2012) in a bid to achieve better accuracy. For instance, the best-performing submissions to the ILSVRC- 2013 (Zeiler & Fergus, 2013; Sermanet et al., 2014) utilised smaller receptive window size and smaller stride of the first convolutional layer.

Another line of improvements dealt with training and testing the networks densely over the whole image and over multiple scales (Sermanet et al., 2014; Howard, 2014). In this paper, we address another important aspect of ConvNet architecture design – its depth.

To this end, we fix other parameters of the architecture, and steadily increase the depth of the network by adding more convolutional layers, which is feasible due to the use of very small ( 3 × 3) convolution filters in all layers. As a result, we come up with significantly more accurate ConvNet architectures, which not only achieve the state-of-the-art accuracy on ILSVRC classification and localisation tasks, but are also applicable to other image recognition datasets, where they achieve excellent performance even when used as a part of a relatively simple pipelines (e.g. deep features classified by a linear SVM without fine-tuning). We have released our two best-performing models 1 to facilitate further research.
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